The causes of cervical cancer are not fully known. However, almost all (99%) cases of cervical cancer have human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.

The causes of cervical cancer are not fully known. However, almost all (99%) cases of cervical cancer have human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.

About 70% of sexually active women are infected with HPV at some point in their lives. The virus settles in the cells of the cervix. In 90% of these, the body’s immune system kicks in and throws the virus away. However, about 10% of them develop cervical cancer within 5-15 years after infection. HPV is contagious. It is mostly transmitted by factors such as skin wounds in the genital area, oral sex, anal sex, and sex with infected individuals.

Other possible causes of cervical cancer other than HPV include:

  • Having a large number of sexual partners: It increases the risk of getting HPV.
  • Sexual activity at an early age: Increases the risk of getting HPV.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases: Sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV/AIDS increase the risk of getting HPV.
  • Weakening of the immune system: Weakening of the immune system due to diseases or medications increases the risk of HPV.
  • Smoking: It increases the risk of abnormal growth of squamous cells and cancer.
  • DES (diethylstilbestrol): Used in the past but still banned, DES increases the risk of cervical cancer.
  • high fertility rate,
  • Birth control pills: Especially for more than five years, the risk of cervical cancer increases.
  • History of bladder, vagina, vulva cancer in the past.

Fighting the risk factors of cervical cancer reduces the risk of cancer. For example, getting the HPV vaccine, quitting smoking, strengthening the immune system, etc.