Nose bleeding, which is more common in children, is seen at a frequency of 7-14% in the society, while its frequency increases up to 60% in Scandinavian countries.

Nose bleeding, which is more common in children, is seen at a frequency of 7-14% in the society, while its frequency increases up to 60% in Scandinavian countries.


If your nosebleed started after a head injury, if you develop dizziness, shortness of breath, or vomiting, or if you have excessive bleeding that does not stop for 10-15 minutes, be sure to call 911 emergency services or seek medical attention by contacting the nearest health facility.

If you have regular nosebleeds, consult your doctor. Especially in children younger than 2 years of age, nosebleeds should be examined. If you are using drugs that prevent blood clotting and you have nosebleeds, consult your doctor.

What should you do when you have nosebleeds?

  • Sit with your head bowed, do not stand
  • Do not try to clean the bleeding with water and do not draw water in your nose.
  • Squeeze the wings of your nose towards the middle for 5 minutes
  • Pack your nose as tight as you can push it in with cotton, gauze, or a clean, soft cloth.
  • Replace the pad at 5 and 15 minutes.
  • Apply cold water or ice to your face, nose and neck.
  • Check if there is any other problem in your body.
  • If your nose bleeding has not stopped after 15 minutes, apply to the nearest health facility.

Nosebleeds often stop spontaneously. There are maxillary sinuses opening to the nose on the right and left sides of the nose. Bleeding may occur due to reasons originating from the anterior or posterior side of the maxillary sinuses opening to the nose.

Anterior nasal ducts are usually more common in children and young adults. Mostly, bleeding occurs in the Litte region of the area covered with a network of capillaries, called the Kisselbach plexus, on the front of the nose.

Posterior nosebleeds are usually seen in the elderly with hypertension and arteriosclerosis. The Woodrufff plexus, a similar network of capillaries, often bleeds posteriorly.

The causes of nosebleeds can be examined in two parts as local causes arising from the nose and causes arising from systemic diseases.

Causes of nosebleeds:

  • Local causes:
    • Trauma
      • Pick
      • Foreign body
      • Bone or cartilage fractures
      • After regional surgery
    • Drying of the nasal mucosa
      • Septal deviation
      • Septal perforation
      • Dry air
    • Barometric changes
    • Endocrine causes
      • Nose bleeding may occur during menstruation
    • Chemical agents
      • Nasal sprays containing steroids or decongestants
      • Cocaine use
    • Infections
      • Rhinitis
      • Sinusitis
    • Benign tumors
      • Polyps
      • Inverted papilloma
      • Juvenile nasal angiofibroma
      • Septal angioma
    • malignant tumors
      • Squamous cell carcinoma
      • Esthezioneuroblastoma
    • Systemic causes
      • Coagulation disorders
        • Anticoagulant or NSAID use
        • Hemophilia
        • Von Willebrand’s disease
        • Pregnancy
        • Liver failure
        • Alcohol addiction
        • Scurvy
        • Leukemia
      • Vascular pathologies
        • Hypertension
        • Chronic nephritis
        • Gestational hypertension
        • Hypertension with sudden joy or sadness
        • Atherosclerosis
        • Heart failure
        • Pneumonia
        • Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease (Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia)
        • Sickle cell anemia
      • Granulomatous diseases and infections
        • Wegener’s granulomatosis
        • Sarcoidosis
        • Syphilis
        • Tuberculosis
        • Rhinoscleroma
        • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
        • Periarteritis nodosa
        • Rheumatic fever
        • Diphtheria
        • Red
        • Measles
        • Typhoid
      • Medicines
        • Penicillin
        • Chloramphenicol
        • Acetyl salicylic acid
        • Corticosteroids
      • Intoxications
        • Cobalt
        • Phosphorus
        • Arsenic
        • Bullet