Cyanosis is a serious and vital condition because it is a condition that occurs as a result of impaired oxygen uptake of tissues from the blood. Consult your doctor when you notice abnormal bruising and bluish color on your skin, hands or lips.

Important:

Cyanosis is a serious and vital condition because it is a condition that occurs as a result of impaired oxygen uptake of tissues from the blood. Consult your doctor when you notice abnormal bruising and bluish color on your skin, hands or lips.

Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, usually due to the presence of at least 5 g of reduced hemoglobin in arterial blood. Cyanosis is a sign of oxygen deficiency in the blood. Sometimes, severe cyanosis can be seen in the increase of other deoxygenated hemoglobins such as methemoglobin or sulfhemoglobin rather than reduced hemoglobin in the blood.



Cyanosis classification:

  • Central cyanosis
  • Peripheral cyanosis

Central cyanosis is caused by a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood for any reason. Peripheral cyanosis, on the other hand, occurs as a result of insufficient oxygen delivery in that region due to decreased blood flow in conditions that cause slowing of blood flow in blood vessels.

Since central cyanosis affects the whole body, both the skin and tissues are bluish in color. If central cyanosis is severe and chronic and has been going on for a long time, there will be an increase in blood cells as the cells carrying oxygen in the blood will increase in number and try to carry more oxygen. In addition, clubbing is frequently seen in central cyanosis.

Although peripheral cyanosis is usually localized, it can sometimes be generalized. It may occur due to cold, psychological tensions, decreased blood flow from the heart or vascular occlusion.

In peripheral cyanosis, while the color of the hands is normal, bruising and blueness of the toes can sometimes be seen. This condition is called differential cyanosis.

Causes of central cyanosis:

  • Cyanotic congenital heart diseases
    • Tetratology of Fallot
    • Eisenmenger syndrome
    • Fallot trilogy
    • Ebstein anomaly
    • Transposition of the great vessels
    • Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
    • Tricuspid atresia
  • Lung diseases
    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    • Pneumonia or sepsis
    • Pneumothorax
    • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    • Pulmonary hypoplasia
    • Alveolitis
    • Pulmonary edema
  • Blockages in the airways
    • Choanal atresia
    • Laryngotracheomalacia
    • Macroglossia
  • Hemoglobin disorders
    • Methemoglobinemia
    • Sulfhemoglobinemia
  • Birth asphyxia in the newborn
  • Meconium aspiration
  • Increased intracranial pressure or bleeding
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Neuromuscular diseases
    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Nervus phrenicus injury
  • Excessive sedation of the mother at birth
  • At the time of seizure
  • Heart attack or cardiogenic shock
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Psychological reasons

Causes of peripheral cyanosis:

  • Decreased blood pressure leaving the heart
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Cardiogenic shock
    • Mitral stenosis
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • Exposure to cold
  • Arterial obstruction
  • Venous obstruction

Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease causing central cyanosis have a history of cyanosis, shortness of breath, heart murmur, crouching, congestive heart failure, or other cardiac symptoms since birth or childhood.

Dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sputum production, recurrent infections and hemoptysis (bloody sputum) are common in patients with central cyanosis caused by pulmonary diseases.

Hemoglobin disorders may be congenital or later on. Congenital hemoglobin disorders are seen with cyanosis from birth. The main of these diseases are NADH diaphorase deficiency and hemoglobin M disease.

Acquired hemoglobin disorders are methemoglobinemia and sulfhemoglobinemia. They are usually triggered by exposure to drugs or chemicals. Nitrite and nitrates, chlorates, quinones, some aniline dyes, acetanilides, sulfonamides and phenacetin are the main active ingredients.

Conditions of decreased cardiac output in patients with peripheral cyanosis are usually seen in patients with heart disease. Exposure to cold is one of the most common causes. In addition, peripheral cyanosis can be seen in cases of long-term venous occlusions, thrombophlebitis, edema, leg trauma or immobility.