The prostate is a genital organ weighing approximately 20 g, located under the bladder, behind the rectum, on the penis. It passes through the urethra (urinary tract). The easiest place to reach is the rectum. Most of it consists of glands. The prostate is anatomically composed of three parts. The transitional part is especially important for benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the peripheral part is important for prostate cancer. The central part is the part where the ejaculation duct passes.

Prostate Gland:  

The prostate is a genital organ weighing approximately 20 g, located under the bladder, behind the rectum, on the penis. It passes through the urethra (urinary tract). The easiest place to reach is the rectum. Most of it consists of glands.

The prostate is anatomically composed of three parts. The transitional part is especially important for benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the peripheral part is important for prostate cancer. The central part is the part where the ejaculation duct passes.



The prostate secretes semen. It is the prostate fluid that gives the milky color to the sperm produced by the testicles. Prostate fluid first coagulates the semen, protecting it from the acidic environment of the vagina. Then it liquefies and allows the semen to move.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the enlargement of the prostate with advancing age. It is benign, meaning it does not turn into prostate cancer. However, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer can occur at the same time.

It is usually not life-threatening. However, depending on its size, it may give symptoms depending on the pressure on the surrounding tissues and urinary tract. It can affect a person’s quality of life. It is usually manifested by urinary problems.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia mostly starts to grow in the 40s. It can be seen in half of men in their 50s and in 90% of men in their 80s. However, not all prostate enlargement needs to be treated. The best method for benign prostatic hyperplasia, which gives few symptoms and does not cause any problems for the patient, may be to follow up.

In addition to surgical treatment options, drug therapy or complementary medicine applications can be used for cases that cause urinary problems in the patient.

Causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia: 

Although BPH is a common disease in men with age, its causes have not yet been clarified.



Possible causes for BPH include:

  • Age: Changes in sex hormones with advanced age are thought to have effects on the prostate gland. The risk increases especially over the age of 45. A decrease in testosterone level and an increase in estrogen level can be effective.
  • Family history: The incidence increases especially in first-degree relatives with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Metabolic syndrome: Metabolic syndrome with diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol increases the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Lifestyle habits: The risk is increased in those who are not very active and drink alcohol.

Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia: 

The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia may differ according to the age of the person, the size of the prostate, and whether there is an additional disease. Some prostate enlargements may remain asymptomatic for years and may be discovered incidentally while investigating other diseases.

However, if the enlarged prostate compresses the surrounding tissues, especially the bladder and urinary canal, and causes narrowing and obstruction in the urinary canal, signs and symptoms can be seen. Rapid intervention may be required in advanced complications such as occlusion.

The most common benign prostatic hyperplasia signs and symptoms are:

  • frequent urination,
  • urination at night,
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Difficulty starting to urinate
  • Weakening of urine flow
  • The feeling that the bladder cannot be fully emptied,
  • Urine coming out in the form of a fork,
  • intermittent urination,
  • Urine dripping on underwear after urination,
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • urinary incontinence,
  • Urinary incontinence when coughing, sneezing, laughing
  • urinary tract infections,
  • Inability to urinate (due to obstruction of the urinary tract),
  • Constant feeling of restlessness in the lower abdomen and groin,
  • Symptoms due to pressure on the nerves acting on the bladder,
  • Bladder or kidney stones due to urine accumulation,

Most of the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia can be seen in more serious diseases such as prostate cancer or in simpler diseases such as urinary tract infections. Therefore, it is necessary to make a good differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other diseases. This distinction is important in terms of treatment planning of diseases. For example, early diagnosis in prostate cancer always means easier treatment.

Patients’ views on prostate symptoms may change with age. For example, the patient may exaggerate the issue of frequent urination. This may also change the treatment options of the disease.

International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) is used for the symptoms of the disease . IPSS score is obtained according to the answers given to 7 standard score questions. According to this

Mild symptoms with an I-PSS score of 0-7,

Moderate symptoms with an I-PSS score of 8-19,

An I-PSS score of 20-35 indicates severe symptoms.

In some studies, an 8th question is added to evaluate the patient’s quality of life. While follow-up is a treatment option for mild symptoms, drug or surgical treatment methods are preferred for moderate and severe symptoms.