Bebeklik dönemi dişleri 6-12 yaş arasında yetişkin dişleri ile değişir. Yirmilik yaş dişi dışındaki dişlerin hemen hepsi 12 yaşına kadar çıkarlar. Yirmilik yaş dişleri de 17-25 yaş arasında çıkar. Bu şekilde erişkin dişleri tamamlanmış ve kalıcı diş ortaya çıkmış olur.  

Adult Teeth 

Baby teeth change with adult teeth between the ages of 6-12. Except for wisdom teeth, almost all teeth erupt by the age of 12. Wisdom teeth erupt between the ages of 17-25. In this way, adult teeth are completed and permanent teeth emerge.

The teeth tend to come out in parallel. As the right upper molar erupts, the right upper molar begins to erupt.

What is tooth coding? 

Dentists will give your teeth a number to make it easier during dental procedures. There are different numbering systems. The most used are the FDI Numbering System (Federation Dentaire Internationale Numbering System) and the Universal Numbering System (Universal Numbering System).

FDI Numbering System (ISO 3950):

Generally used except in North America. The upper and lower jaws are divided in half. The right upper jaw is represented by the number 1, the left upper jaw 2, the left lower jaw 3, the right lower jaw 4. Teeth are numbered starting from the front teeth. The teeth in the center of each jaw piece are numbered starting from 1. The most posterior teeth are number 8. When giving the tooth number, these two numbers are combined and get a double digit number. For example, when 18 is said, it refers to the upper right wisdom tooth.

Teeth model front FDI NotationPhoto: Partynia


FDI tooth numbering adult

Image: careforsmiles

Universal Number System :

It is mostly used in America. As in the FDI system, the upper and lower jaws are divided into two in the middle and four quarter jaws are obtained. Here the jaws are not numbered. Teeth are numbered starting from the right upper wisdom tooth. In other words, the upper right rear tooth is number 1, the upper left rearmost tooth is number 16, the lower left rearmost tooth is number 17, and the lower right rearmost tooth is number 32.

  Universal Numbering System.svg

  Image: Kaligula

What are adult teeth and their functions? 

Adults have a total of 32 teeth, including 4 wisdom teeth, in addition to 28 teeth.

Incisors: There are 8, 4 in each jaw. According to the FDI classification, they are teeth numbered 11,12,21,22,31,32,41,42. That is, in the upper and lower jaws, they are the four teeth in the middle. They are used for cutting, tearing and holding food. The bite of the tooth is wide and thin, creating a chisel-shaped cutting edge.

Canine teeth (cuspit) (Canine): There are 4, 2 in each jaw. It is located next to the incisors. According to the FDI classification, they are teeth numbered 13, 23, 33, 43. It is for holding and tearing food. It is also called a cuspid tooth because it is single-ended.

Bicuspid (Premolar): There are 8, 4 in each jaw. It is also called a bicuspid tooth because it usually has two ends. There are two each next to the canine teeth. According to the FDI classification, they are teeth numbered 14, 15, 24, 25, 34, 35, 44, 45. It is used to hold, crush and cut food into pieces.

Molars: There are 12, two of which are wisdom teeth, 6 in each jaw. They are teeth at the very back of the mouth, typically with four or five tips. According to the FDI classification, molars numbered 18, 28, 38 and 48 are wisdom teeth. Other molars are 16, 17, 26, 27, 36, 37, 46 and 47. It is used for crushing and grinding.

What is the structure of the tooth? 

The tooth basically consists of two parts.

The first is the crown of the tooth (crown) part. The crown is the part of the tooth that is located above the gum and is visible from the outside. It is completely covered with enamel that protects the dentin layer underneath. It is made of dentin and contains a pulp chamber.

The second part of the tooth is the tooth root . The root of the tooth remains under the gingiva, descends to the jawbones, keeping the tooth fixed in the mouth. Every tooth has a root. The number of roots varies according to the type of tooth. Molars have two or three roots, first premolars have two roots, while others have one root. The root of the tooth is under the neck of the tooth and is covered with cement.

Tooth Surfaces: 

The part of the tooth that is visible from the outside, facing the cheek and lip, is the facial face . The part facing the tongue that is not normally visible from the outside is the lingual face . The visible part of the facial faces from the outside is the labial face , and the part on the cheek that is not visible from the outside is the buccal face .

Other anatomical parts of the tooth are: 

Neck : It is the area where the crown of the tooth meets the root at the gum line.

Enamel: It is the hardest substance in the human body due to the crystalline calcium phosphate (hydroxylapatite) it contains. The crown of each tooth is covered with enamel that protects the underlying dentin. Enamel is the only tissue that does not contain living cells. Because it is not alive, it cannot protect itself from decay or damage.

Gum : The gingiva is normally pink in color. Gums with a soft structure protect the jawbone and tooth roots and cover the neck of the teeth.

Dentin: It is the main component of the tooth. It extends along the tooth. It is similar to bone but has a softer structure than enamel. It is elastic and alive. It is protected from above by enamel and from below by cementum. It is fed by pulp. It is quite sensitive.

Pulp Chamber : It is the innermost layer of the tooth, located under the dentin, extending from the crown of the tooth to the root. It contains blood vessels that keep the tooth alive, lymph vessels that carry white blood cells that fight bacteria, and nerves that control the sensation of hot and cold.

Pulp Canal : It is the open space inside the root extending from the pulp chamber. It is the entrance channel of blood vessels and nerves coming from the outer tissue to the pulp.

Cementum : It is a hard layer that covers the tooth root. It connects the root of the tooth to the gums and jawbone with connective tissues.

Periodontal Ligament : It consists of connective tissue fiber bundles. It connects the tooth root to the cementum at one end and to the jawbone at the other end. In this way, the resistance of the tooth to the bite and chewing force is ensured.

Accessory Canal : It extends from the main pulp (root) canal to the periodontal ligament. It is close to the root tip (apex) of the tooth and allows blood vessels and nerves to enter the pulp.

Apical Foramen : It is the small space at the end of the root of the tooth, through which blood vessels and nerves pass.

Alveolar bone: It is the jawbone. It surrounds and supports the tooth root.